READING LABELS AND DIFFERENTIATING PRODUCT CATEGORIES SHOULD BE ONE OF THE BASIC SKILLS OF A PROFESSIONAL IN HORECA.
JUICE – a product obtained from one or more species of healthy, mature, fresh or chilled fruit and vegetables. It has a colour, taste and smell characteristic of juice from fruits and vegetables from which it is obtained. Pulp and its cells which havepreviously been separated can be added to juice. It is forbidden to add colouring, sweetening substances (sweeteners), preserving substances (preservatives) and flavourings other than those obtained from fruit and vegetables from which the juice is produced.Juices can be enriched with vitamins and mineral salts. In December 2011, the European Parliament decided to introduce a ban on the addition of sugar to fruit juices, which legitimized a common practice. In accordance with the Ordinance of the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development of 8 February 2013 regarding detailed requirements for the commercial quality of fruit juices and nectars starting from 28 October 2013 it has been forbidden to add any sugars to all fruit juices. Juices can be divided according to various criteria, taking into account the following: type of raw materials (fruit,vegetables, fruit and vegetables), type of a semi-product(directly squeezed, recovered from concentrated juice), thermal treatment (unpasteurized – the so-called one-day juices, pasteurized), appearance and texture (clear, naturally cloudy, puréed).
NECTAR – contains from 25 to 100% of fruit or vegetable juice/purée depending on the type of fruit or vegetables,nectar is obtained by adding water and sugar and/or honey and sometimes citric acid to fruit or vegetable juice/purée. For example apple, orange, grapefruit nectars contain the minimum of 50% of fruit juice, cherry nectars the minimum of 25%, and black currant nectars the minimum of 25%. It is forbidden to add colouring and preserving substances (preservatives) and flavourings other than those obtained from fruit and vegetables from which the juice is produced.. and flavourings to nectars other than those obtained from fruit and vegetables from which the juice is produced. Thus, the colour, taste and texture depend on the fruit and vegetables used for production. Nectars are therefore a valuable and fully natural product. Nectars are often produced from fruit whose flavour is too sour and tart, which would make the 100% juice unpalatable, e.g. from cherry, black currant and chokeberry, or the juice would be too thick, e.g. from bananas. If honey, which is forbidden in juices but allowed in nectars, is added to the juice containing 100% fruit preparation, the product will also be called a nectar. Light nectars can have sweetening substances (sweeteners) added.
and vegetable drink
Fruit and vegetable DRINK – the group of drinks is very wide. It is recommended to choose fruit and vegetable drinks, which, according to the definition by GUS (Polish Central Statistical Office) must have the minimum of 20% of fruit and/or vegetable juice or purée added. Such drinks are rich in nutrients derived from fruit or vegetables. Fruit and vegetable drinks can be pasteurized or chemically preserved. It is allowed to use colouring, aromas other than natural ones, sweeteners, thickeners and other additives permitted,which impart taste, aroma, but can also be added to enrich a drink. If e.g. spices or their extracts are added to a 100% fruit juice, then, from the legal point of view, this product must be called a drink. Some fruits are not used to produce juices and nectars as they would be too sour, e.g. lemon, lime.
or vegetable juice (concentrate)
Fruit or vegetable CONCENTRATED JUICE (concentrate of a fruit or vegetable juice) – a concentrated fruit juice is a product obtained from one or more species of fruit or vegetables by removing some water they contain by physical means, usually by evaporating water (although a freezing method is also used). A concentrated juice is a condensed form of a ready-made juice having all its qualities such as taste, colour and nutrients like vitamins, fibre, and others valuable for our organism. Supplementing it with water in the right proportion to the original value (reconstitution) reconstitutes a concentrated juice to a condition ready for consumption. Modern juice industry (production of ready-made juices) is largely based on the process of reconstitution of a concentrated juice and its aseptic packing in unit packages.
Fruit syrups belong to a separate category and cannot be included in any of the above- mentioned products. The share of fruit juice in syrups is not defined by law, it is allowed to use a number of substances with technological functions such as thickeners and colouring, therefore fruit syrups cannot be called „concentrated juices”.
LEGAL REGULATIONS RELATING TO JUICES
1) Under the EU Directive of April 2012 (Directiveof the European Parliament and of the Council 2012/12/EC of 19 April 2012 amending Council Directive 2001/112/EC relating to fruit juices and certain similar products intended for human consumption)) manufacturers cannot add any sugars (white sugar, fruit sugar, sugar syrups, glucose-fructose syrups, corn syrups and others), for all fruit juices. However, sugar may be added to vegetable and vegetable and fruit nectars and drinks. According to the interpretation, sugar must not be added to 100% vegetable juices and vegetable and drink juices.
2) The juice Directive of 27 April 2012 has been implemented in Poland with applicable regulations. In accordance with the Ordinance of the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development of 8 February 2013 regarding detailed requirements for the commercial quality of fruit juices and nectars (Dz. U. [Journal of Laws] of 2013, it. 327),, starting from 28 October 2013 it has been forbidden to add any sugars to all fruit juices. Fruit juices contain only sugars naturally occurring in fruit from which they have been made.Therefore in no way can fruit juices be described as sweetened products. What is more, in accordance with the guidelines of the European Commission, it was not allowed to add sugars to all 100% juices also before October 28, 2013, which follows from the definition of a 100% juice (no additives, including sugar, can be added to a 100% juice).
3) The sugar content in 100 g of juice made from a concentrated juice and an NFC (Not From Concentrate) juice, commonly referred to as a direct one, as well as fruits from which they have been produced, is very similar. According to the legal regulations the addition of sugars to fruit juices is forbidden. Also, naturally occurring sugars must not be removed from them. This is one of the conditions to maintain full naturalness and authenticity of juices. The average calorific value of fruit and fruit juice is 40-50 kcal / 100 g of the product, while the calorific value of a wheat roll without additives is 270 kcal / 100 g. The calorific value of a juice reconstituted from a concentrated juice and of a fruit juice (the so-called direct one) is practically the same.
4) The vast majority of fruit and vegetables and juices obtained from them, also including protein, fat and carbohydrates other than sugars contained in them, provide less than 50 kcal in 100 g and is characterised by a medium glycemic index.
5) Fruit and vegetable juices provide significant amounts of minerals – especially potassium, which is particularly important in the context of excessive sodium intake and sodium-potassium balance. Moreover,juices are a source of antioxidant substances of importance in maintaining human well-being and fighting free radicals, whereas cloudy and puréed juices are additionally a valuable source of soluble fibre (pectins).
6) One and a half glass of an orange or grapefruit juice (300 ml) approximately covers the daily demand of an adult for vitamin C (80 mg).
7) On average, one glass of red beet juice (200 ml) covers the daily requirement of an adult for folic acid (200 µg).
8) Carrot juices are rich in beta-carotene (provitamin A) necessary for proper growth and vision. On average, one glass covers an adult’s need for vitamin A (800 µg in the form of beta-carotene) .
9) It is forbidden to add colouring and preserving substances to all juices and nectars. It is also prohibited to add flavourings, other than those derived from fruit and vegetables, from which the juice or nectar has been produced.
10) It is not allowed to add any sweetening substances (sweeteners) to all juices. Sweetening substances (sweeteners) are allowed in light nectars, which is specified on a packaging.
II.JUICE AS ONE OF 5 PORTIONS OF FRUIT AND VEGETABLES
According to the World Health Organization (WHO) the consumption of fruit and vegetables a day should amount to the minimum of 400 grams. A glass of juice may be one of the 5 daily servings of vegetables and fruits as recommended by nutrition experts . Credible positions in this respect are presented by Ministries of Health of different countries or relevant Government Agencies dealing with public health and food safety.
Below are the key points of the campaign
a) Drinking fruit juice or corresponding vegetable juice, as an equivalent of one of five servings of fruit and vegetables recommended for daily consumption is supported by the position
in a position expressed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in the document „Measuring intake of fruit or vegetables”., in the definition of the concept of „fruit” (point 8.1), 100% fruit juice is indicated as absolutely wholesome fruit equivalent („Fruits should include: fruits that are fresh, canned, frozen and dried unless they are classified as vegetables regardless their high energy content, such as avocados, olives, and nuts. Only fruit juices that are 100 % pure should be considered as fruit”).
b) Juices, as recommended by the Food and Nutrition Institute, can be one of the five recommended portions of fruit and vegetables. According to the „Principles of proper nutrition for children and adolescents and guidelines for a healthy lifestyle ” edited by Mirosław Jarosz, director of the Food and Nutrition Institute a medium-sized fruit or vegetable (an apple, a carrot) or several smaller pieces (strawberries, cherries), or 1 glass of salad, or 1 glass of juice.. Additionally, also the expertise of the Food and Nutrition Institute – „The place of juices in the human nutrition model” , under the supervision of prof. dr hab. med. Mirosław Jarosz from 2014 – confirms that „One portion of fruit or vegetables can be replaced with a portion of vegetable, fruit or fruit and vegetable juice (one portion corresponds to one glass of juice)”. Additionally, the IFN emphasizes that the diet should be wholesome and balanced, as well as varied.
c) British National Health Service (NHS) recommends a glass of juice (150 ml) as one of 5 servings of vegetables and fruit (A glass (150 ml) of fruit juice counts as one of your recommended five daily portions of fruit and vegetables. Smoothies that are 100% fruit or vegetable can count as up to two portions towards your 5 A DAY when they contain all of the edible pulped fruit or vegetable.). In Poland puréed smoothie-like juices are commonly available and popular with consumers.
III.CONSUMPTION OF JUICES, NECTARS
1) An average Pole drinks approx. 11.7 l of juices per year per person (18 litres of juices and nectars), which gives an average of approx. 32 ml of juice per day per person (50 ml of juices and nectars). Whereas Norwegians and Finns drink an average of 200 ml of juice per person per day, which gives 1 cup of juice. In most countries of the European Union, the consumption is much higher than in PolandA small amount of juice consumed in Poland, i.e. the most valuable fruit and vegetable products to drink is caused primarily by the lack of consumer awareness.
2) The average calorific value of fruit and fruit juice is 40 – 50 kcal / 100 g of product, while the calorific value of a wheat roll without additives is 270 kcal / 100 g. The average calorific value of vegetables and 100% juices obtained from them is 20-30 kcal / 100 g of product.The calorific value of a juice reconstituted from a concentrated juice and a direct juice (the so-called NFC) is comparable. Fruits, vegetables and juices obtained from them are among the lowest calorie, natural products consumed.
 Items 6-8 calculated based on: Poniższe dane opracowano na podstawie: „Tabeli składu i wartości odżywczych” H. Kunachowicz, I. Nadolna, B. Przygoda i K. Iwanow, Wydawnictwo Lekarskie PZWL, Warszawa 2005, Rozporządzenie Parlamentu Europejskiego i Rady (UE) nr 1169/2011 z dnia 25 października 2011 r. w sprawie przekazywania konsumentom informacji na temat żywności oraz www.nutritiondata.self.com
 Traczyk I., „Warzywa i owoce w codziennym jadłospisie”, [„Fruit and vegetables in a daily diet”], [in:] Zasady prawidłowego żywienia dzieci i młodzieży oraz wskazówki dotyczące zdrowego stylu życia [„Principles of proper nutrition of children and adolescents and guidelines for a healthy lifestyle”], edited by Mirosław Jarosz, IFN, Warsaw 2008, p. 79.
 Jarosz M., „Miejsce soków w modelu, żywienia człowieka”, IŻŻ, Warszawa 2014, s.3
 Market Report AIJN 2014